4. Discussion

4. Discussion

4.1 Analysis of results


Experiment A

In conclusion, the wind speed of 6.9m/s has the most power output.


Experiment B

In conclusion, having 6 vanes attached to the wind turbine hub has the most power output.


Experiment C

In conclusion, a 45º angle of  blades has the most power output.


Experiment D

In conclusion, the medium sized blade with an area of 20cm^2 has the most power output.


Overall, the 6.9 m/s wind speed, 6 Vanes, 45º blades, the medium length blade with an area of 20cm^2 produce the most power output.





4.2 Key findings


Best Factors For Best Propeller: The best possible blades would have a length of 20 cm^2, angle 45 degree, with 6 vanes and medium wind speed

From this results we can understand that the most amount does not mean the most electric generated.

Most of the best settings come from the middle factors which is also not too much nor too little.





4.3 Explanation of key findings

Experiment A
Reason For Wind speed: The reason why the highest wind speed did not generate the most power output is because the wind speed was too strong resulting in a higher wind resistance, causing the vanes to require more energy to turn faster.

The reason why the lowest wind speed did not generate the most power output is because the wind speed was too low and did not generate more wind energy since there was very little force pushing the exposed contact area of the blades to spin, thus it generated the least power output.


Experiment B
Reason For Vanes: The reason why the highest amount of vanes did not generate the most power output is because it caused it to weigh much more heavier and causing more wind energy to allow it to turn, therefore it generated lesser electricity.

The reason why the least vanes did not generate the most power output is because the least vanes had the least exposed surface area to the wind and thus, causing it to have a lesser force of wind acting on the surface of the blades, thus it generating one of the least power outputs.  





Experiment C
Reason For Angle: The reason why the lowest angle (15º) did not generate the most power output is because the angle is to flat and causing the wind to move along the blade, going sideways instead of pushing the blades to spin.


Experiment D
Reason For Length of Blades: The reason why the longest of the blades did not generate the most power output is because the length of blades would affect the weight of the blades, making them heavier and less movable without force. Therefore it could not spin, resulting in lesser power output generated.

The reason why the lowest length of blades did not generate the most power output is because the area of exposed area is the least and very little wind could push the blades to spin, therefore it generated lesser power output.





4.4 Evaluation of Hypothesis
For the investigation of the effect of the blades on the power output of the wind-mill:

For experiment A:
Hypothesis: We thought that the highest wind speed will have the most power output but the medium wind speed has the most power output.

Our hypothesis was not correct.
The highest wind speed did not cause the most amount of electric generated. Instead the middle wind speed produced the most amount electricity that would be generated. This was surprising results as normally the highest wind speed would probably have the most power output but it did’nt.








For experiment B:

Hypothesis: We thought that 4 vanes would result in the highest power output.

Our hypothesis was not correct.
The 4 vanes did not cause the most amount of electric generated. Instead 6 Vanes produced the most amount electricity that would be generated. Normally we measured with 4 Vanes would be the average amount of Vanes we used as we could see from pictures of a windmill. However, 6 Vanes resulted in more electric generated.


For experiment C:

Hypothesis: We thought that 45 degree blade would result in the highest power output

Our hypothesis was correct.
The 45 * did cause the most amount of electric generated. This was same as the results and hypothesis from what was expected. As 45* was the normal angle we used and we were also very encouraged to use that


For experiment D:

Hypothesis: We thought that longest vane would result in the highest power output

Our hypothesis was correct.
Explanation:The longest length of Vanes did not cause the most amount of electricity generated. Instead the 20 cm^2 produced the most amount electricity that would be generated. We originally thought that the longest would cause the most, due to the area exposed however we realised that 20 cm^2 is the best optimal for the     length of the vanes



4.5 Areas for improvement

Limitation: The experiment could have been improved if carried out in a place without external winds.

Explanation: Since the experiments was carried out in the lab, the wind from the ceiling fan would vary the experiment results due to the extra wind coming from the ceiling fan therefore affecting the results.

Improvement: The improvement is that we should have carried out the experiment in another lab where the fans were not switched on.




Limitation: The experiment could have been improved if the position between the industrial fan and the retort stand would have remained the same.

Explanation: Due to the limited space we were given, the distance between the industrial fan and the retort stand did not remain the same throughout the entire experiment as it might be placed too much to the right or the left, thus resulting in the power output not being constant when the experiment are carried out on different days (which means that the distance would not be exactly the same)

Improvement: The solution is if we mark out the position of the fan so that when the experiment is carried out again we are able to make sure that the distance is always the same which result in it not affecting the experiment results.




Limitation: The experiment could have been improved by ensuring that the angle of the fan remained the same throughout the experiment.

Explanation: Before the project, we had not thought through about this Limitation as the angle of that the fan was facing would affect the experiment. It would cause the power output of the windmill to vary as the wind direction was not the same throughout the experiment.

Improvement: The solution to this Limitation is to measure the angle of the industrial fan every time so that the wind direction is constant throughout the entire experiment, thus ensuring that the results are the same for all the 4 experiments.

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