Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names:
Bervin Bek (Leader)
Aik Kiat
Edison

Class: S2-04

Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H  / J /  K  / L /  M  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[ X ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum

[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[ ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene

[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


Type & Category

Type of research: (1) Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research  (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  –  19. PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (PH)
(Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category – G  (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)
Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

  • This project is related to generation of electrical output, harvesting the wind’s kinetic energy. The electrical output produced by wind turbine varies according to the number of blades but at a point, the electrical output will not be directly proportional to the number of blades and the also investigating how angle of blades and the design of the blades affect the electrical output. The number of blades also increase or decrease its weight so the power output may decrease due to the reduced turning moments (Nm) of the wind turbine when the turbine spins. We are interested to find the optimum number of blades, the angle and the design of blades best for producing the most amount power/electricity. It must produce the most amount of electrical output as efficiently as possible. It will also improve the productivity of generating renewable energy by altering the factors regarding the vanes of the turbine. Renewable energy that can be replenished quickly and can help the world and by having sustainable energy that will never run out after a certain period of time and is environmentally friendly so as not to harm or pollute the Earth unlike Non-renewable energy such as the burning coal, fossil fuels and natural gas for energy which emits a lot of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and harmful Carbon Monoxide (CO) ,which may lead to lung diseases and even cancer, produced during the process of combustion when there is not sufficient oxygen for the flame to burn. The use of wind turbines is at its best in countries where there are strong winds throughout the year such as Denmark.



C.    Write down your research title:

  • The Investigation on the effect of blades on the power output of the wind-mill.


D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed

  • To find the ideal number of vanes, angle of the vanes and the design of the vanes that can produce the largest power output.

(b) Independent variable

  • The vanes depending on the various experiments - The length, size, angle, number of blades etc.



(c) Dependent variable

  • The dependent variable is the power output <P (Power)=V (voltage) x I (Current)> that the wind turbine can generate in a time period of 1 minute



(d) Controlled variables

  1. No surrounding wind.
  2. The shapes, angle, number of the blades (dependent on the various aims of the experiment).
  3. The same duration of the experiments (1minute)
  4. Speed of the spinning fan (Amount of wind blowing to the wind turbine)



(e) Hypothesis (3 experiments)

(A)  The more blades, to a certain extent, the more power output is produced.
(B)  The angle of the vanes. The vane facing and 45º produces the most power out of the 3 different degrees that will be tested.  
(C)   The design of a vane that is wider will produce the most power.










E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
  • 3 Different vanes with different areas (12 of each)
  • 12 3D-printed vanes of the same design
  • One Turbine motor to calculate the amount of power output generated
  • A roll of tape  
  • Blue tack     
  • Batteries (2 x 1.5V)
  • Ammeter (Rheostat)
  • Voltmeter
  • Copper Wires (Best if insulated by a layer of rubber)
  • Retort stand
  • Industrial fan



(b) Diagrams













(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

(A)  Finding out the ideal number of vanes that would produce the best power output.
  1. Insert a number of blades (n) to the wind turbine at an angle of 45º
  2. Place a fan 30cm away from the middle of the motor
  3. Switch the fan on at a constant speed for all the experiments
  4. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before switching the fan off
  5. Calculate the power output at the end of the experiment
  6. Jot down the results for each test in a data table. Make conclusions: Did test 1 (with the least propellers) or test (with the most propellers) produced the greatest power?
  7. Repeat for the various number of vanes (2, 3, 4, 6, 8)
  8. Repeat each step  for 3 times to ensure accuracy and reliability.
  9. Make conclusions: Did test 1 (with the least propellers) or test (with the most propellers) produced the greatest power?
  10. Announce the end of Setup 1. Prepare for setup 2.
___________________________________________________________________________

(B) Finding out the ideal angle of the vanes that will have the most power output produced
  1. According to experiment (A), using the most ideal number of vanes, change the angles of all the vanes by using a protractor to measure the angles changed
  2. Place a fan 30cm away from the middle of the motor
  3. Switch on the fan. Make sure that there are no stray winds coming from other directions, apart from the fan. Ascertain that it is blowing in the direction of the propeller, but not facing it. Make its speed constant for all experiments.
  4. For each experiment, vary the angle of the propellers and observe which angle spins the fastest.
  5. Use a stopwatch and measure it for 1 minute before switching the fan off after each experiment.
  6. Calculate the power output at the end of the experiment
  7. Record the results in a data table
  8. Repeat steps 1 to 5 with the various angles of the vanes (70º, 45º and 20º)
  9. Each try for each angle must be repeated thrice, in order to obtain an accurate and reliable result at the end of the experiment.
___________________________________________________________________________


(C) Finding out the ideal area of the vane that would have the most power output produced.
  1. According to experient (B), using the most ideal angle and number of vanes, change the design of the vanes by and alternate 3D-printed vane design
  2. Place a fan 30cm away from the middle of the motor
  3. Switch the fan on at a constant speed for all the experiments
  4. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before switching the fan off
  5. Calculate the power output at the end of the experiment
  6. Record the results in a data table
  7. Repeat steps 1 to 5 with the different design of the vanes (15 cm^2, 20 cm^2, 30 cm^2)
  8. Make sure that each experiment for each Vane is repeated for 3 times. (Accuracy and reliability)











(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table


Risk
Assessment
Management
If the blades are not inserted firmly into the wind turbine hubs, it might fly out at a high speed while the turbine is spinning which may lead to injuries.
Low/
Medium/
High
Make sure that the blade is firmly placed by using tape or blue-tack and test by spinning the fan at the turbine motor at increasing speeds before the experiment to make sure the propeller does not fly out and is secure. Also, wear safety goggles to prevent eye injuries if the propellor happens to fly towards our eyes.
Electric Conductivity that may cause shocks through the electrical appliances (e.g. exposed wires).
Low/
Medium/
High
Use a small tape to tape it around the wind turbine and wires and wear gloves since gloves are not conductors of electricity. Also ensure that there are not water bottles or water near the experiment set-up or it may lead to short circuits and potential injuries.
Inserting the blades into the hub of the model wind turbine, or pulling it out can cause breakages as well as hand injuries
Low/
Medium/
High
Wear gloves to prevent sustainable injuries, and take safety precautions to prevent injuries by gently removing the propeller out of the wind turbine hub.
The industrial fan used can cause cuts of the fingers are accidently inserted
Low/
Medium/
High
Wear gloves to prevent sustainable injuries, and take precaution to prevent injuries by being

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

  1. Tabulate the data recorded in the table and calculate the average power output (V-Volts) produced by the various experiments - “Number of vanes”, “Angle of vanes” and “Design of vanes”.
  2. Plot a histogram showing the average results obtained showing the power output produced by the various number of vanes, angle of the vanes and the design of the vanes.
  3. From the histogram, we can find out which design and size of the propellor is best to be used in the generation of the most amount of electrical energy with the aid of  the wind.(kinetic/mechanical energy)







F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

Dr, P., & S, K. (2016). Inferring Global Wind Energetics from a Simple Earth System Model Based on the Principle of Maximum Entropy (Issue 1 ed., Vol. Volume 6). Karkar.S.

E-Books:


A book about how a propeller design affects its amount of wind absorption.

1.H., D., & Arán, M. (2014). On Fully Aligned Lifting Line Model for Propellers: An Assessment of Betz condition. (2nd ed., Vol. 58, p. 16). Austin, Texas.

A book that describes the different ideas planned for a wind turbine.

2.J. P. (2011). Innovation in Wind turbine design. Hoboken, NJ: Jhon wiley.









(b) Journals

MAMUR, H. (2015). Design, application, and power performance analysis of a micro wind turbine. Turkish Journal Of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, 23(6), 1619-1637. doi:10.3906/elk-1401-174





(c) Websites

  • The web source of our mini motor set.

Tamiya Corporation 2003. Mini Motor Set; Specification No.26; Elecraft Series. Item No. 7506: http://www.tamiya.com/english/products/75026mini_motor/index.htm
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Other Websites (Sources)

  • Cho, J. (2013, November 11). What is the relationship between a propeller's rotational speed and the thrust it creates. How do more powerful engines result in faster aircraft? Retrieved January 13, 2016, from https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-relationship-between-a-propellers-rotational-speed-and-the-thrust-it-creates-How-do-more-powerful-engines-result-in-faster-aircraft


  • Express, M. (2009, December 11). Prop Sizes and Gear Ratios. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://blog.marinepartsexpress.com/2009/12/prop-sizes-and-gear-ratios/

  • Fly, H. (2014, November 3). Is there a relationship between the length of the wingspan and the diameter of the propeller? | How Things Fly. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from https://howthingsfly.si.edu/ask-an-explainer/there-relationship-between-length-wingspan-and-diameter-propeller

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