1. Introduction

1. Introduction

Wind power converts the kinetic energy in wind to generate electricity or mechanical power. (GoldPower, 2016)
A wind turbine transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. (STELR-ATSE, 2016)
With the advancing technology of mankind, electricity being the key component for powering computers and many electrical appliances. Furthermore, more factories are needed to produce the parts needed for new technology which will result in an increase in the number of factories which also needs electricity to stay functional. The need for Electricity is huge, and used exponentially. So where does all this electricity come from? “Energy can come in the form of electricity, heat and transport fuels, like petrol. “(Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victoria, Australia, 2011).

As such, we start to fret about these factors affecting our already destroyed environment, and would start to use cleaner forms of energy,  also known as green energy. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity (Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, 2016).  Although some countries are already harnessing wind energy to generate electricity, the amount generated is barely enough for the world, considering that most countries do not have stable sources of wind throughout the year. Thus we have found a solution that is to improve the blades of the windmills so that more electrical energy can be produced than a normal blade of a windmill given the same amount of wind and wind speed.

By testing using a mini wind turbine kit, we would want to find out how the factors of the blade would have an effect on the power output of the wind turbine motor. We would experiment on the following factors: wind speed, number of blades, angle of blades, length of blades and design of blades.

From research, we found out that the most controversial statements from researchers by Kira Grogg, Capellaro (2005) and Martin Harpele (2016), contradicted our hypothesis and past conclusions about the ideal angle of attack for the blades in a windmill, and their suitable number, saying that when the angle of blades (angle of attack) was too high (sharp), it resulted in a loss of speed. “With a certain range, an increased angle of attack means increased lift, but also more drag, which detracts from the desired motion. When the angle of attack gets too large, turbulence develops and the drag increases significantly, while lift is lost” (Grogg, 2005) And “More wind causes the  turbine blade to lower its pitch, decreasing its angle of attack” (Capellaro, 2012)
In addition, research from Martin Harpele (2016) also showed that many blades in the hub of the wind turbine increased its speed, but also decreased it to a certain extent.As such, we were confused as to how many propellers were suitable and best for the wind turbine.A high number, or a low one?. “Usually a propeller with more blades will perform slightly better, as it distributes its power and thrust more evenly in its wake. But for a given power or thrust, more blades also mean more narrow blades with reduced chord length, so practical limits have to be considered here.”  (Harpele M, 2016).

We wanted to find out why such conclusions were made by such highly esteemed professors. After all, our hypothesis deduced that experiment C, which tested on the ideal angle of attack of the blades in a windmill which is known as the pitch. A higher angle of attack would increase the force of the wind pushing the blades to spin. The things unknown to us would be resolved in our experimentation.

Our hypothesis for Experiment B, which tested on the ideal number of blades and their effect on a windmill, was also as such, that 3 vanes, a low number, generated the most power.

Hence the aspect of our experimentation that takes up the most of time would be Testing the ideal angle of attack of the blades of a windmill in Experiment B, and the best number of blades it should have in Experiment C. They are the most taxing of all, which require the most attention.
Fig 1.1: Picture on how higher angles harness more wind motion and affect the power output (Spakovszky, 2002).

This particular experiment with a miniature propeller kit will assure our anxieties, and that we would fully understand the traits of a windmill with exemplary conduct, and finding the real truth in these 2 factors.(angle of attack and no. of propellers)Now on a brief narration on the applications of using Wind energy.

Wind energy becomes a good source for clean and renewable energy, and which does not run out. It relies solely on the presence of wind, and nothing else. As long as there is wind, wind turbines can harness their power, and converts the kinetic energy of their fast speeds into electrical energy through a generator. Using the presence of wind will give us a stable source of electricity to power our homes, every, single time of the day. Just think for a minute. Of course we can use the presence of Fossil Fuels, but that is not an ideal function of energy production.It is not eco-friendly and destroys our air quality.

1.1 Research Questions           

From this research and experiment, we plan to investigate how the effect of the different type of blades will affect the power output of a wind mill. The different types of wind speed, number, angle, length of the blades would have the best and highest power output of the windmill measured by the ammeter that is connected to the wind turbine in the unit mA (milli Ampere) for each for a distinctive type of experiments.

Experiment A
The aim of this experiment is to find out the best wind speed that will generate the most power output by the wind turbine motor.

Experiment B
The aim of this experiment is to find out the best number of blades of the blade that will generate the most power output by the wind turbine motor.

Experiment C
The aim of this experiment is to find out the best angle of the blade that will generate the most power output by the wind turbine motor.

Experiment D
The aim of this experiment is to find out the best length of the blade that will generate the most power output by the wind turbine motor.  

The dependent variable would be the amount of electrical output (mA) measure by the ammeter generated by the wind turbine motor.

The constant variables would be:
The rate of the spinning fans (except Experiment A)
No surrounding wind/amount of surrounding wind and wind direction.
The constant distance (50cm) in length between the industrial fan and the blades.
The length of blades (except experiment D)







1.2 Hypothesis

For the investigation of the effect of the blades on the power output of the wind-mill:
For test on wind speed:
Experiment A: The “high” wind speed of 8.3 m/s will have the most power output generated by the wind turbine motor.

For test on number of vanes:
Experiment B: 3 vanes will have the most power output generated by the wind turbine motor.

For test on angle of blades:
Experiment C: 45ยบ angle of the blades will have the most power output generated by the wind turbine motor.

For test on Length of blades:
Experiment D: The longest length of blade will have the most power output generated by the wind turbine motor.









Experiment
Independent variable
Constants
Dependent Variable
A
Wind Speed
~ No surrounding wind/amount of surrounding wind and wind direction.

~ The constant distance (50cm) in length between the industrial fan and the blades.

~ The length of blades.

~ The number of blades.

~ The angle of blades.
The dependent variable would be the amount of electrical output (mA) measured by the ammeter connected to the wind turbine. The current is generated by the wind turbine motor.
B
Number of Blades
~ The rate of the spinning fans

~ No surrounding wind/amount of surrounding wind and wind direction.

~ The constant distance (50cm) in length between the industrial fan and the blades.

~ The length of blades.

~ The angle of the blades.
C
Angle of Blades
~ The rate of the spinning fans

~ No surrounding wind/amount of surrounding wind and wind direction.

~ The constant distance (50cm) in length between the industrial fan and the blades.

~ The length of blades.

~ The number of blades.
D
Length of Blades
~ The rate of the spinning fans

~ No surrounding wind/amount of surrounding wind and wind direction.

~ The constant distance (50cm) in length between the industrial fan and the blades.

~ The number of blades.

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