2. Methods

2. Methods


2.1 Equipment List


No.
Item name
Quantity of Item(s)
1.
3 types of blades of different lengths (15cm^2, 20cm^2, 30cm^2 )
12 of each type
2.
STELR Wind Turbine Motor
1
3.
STELR Wind Turbine Motor Hub
1
4.
Ammeter
1
5.
Wires
2
6.
Anemometer
1
7.
Retort Stands
2
8.
STELR Protractor
1
9.
Industrial Fan
1
10.
3D-Printed Blades (Type 1 and 2)
12 of each type


Fig 1: The picture shows a vane which has an area of 30 cm^2, and also has the longest length as compared to the other two different type of vanes. Being the longest, it is also the heaviest of the three.


Fig 2: The picture shows the vane with 20 cm^2 and is the one with moderate length.



Fig 3: The picture shows the 15 cm^2 vane which is the shortest of the three. Being the smallest, it is also the lightest.




Fig 4: The wind turbine motor is to generate the amount of electrical output generated by the turning moment of the vanes when the wind from the industrail fan passess through it, causing it to turn. It is also connected to an ammeter to measure the current (I) produced by the makeshift wind turbine.(Vanes attached to a hub in front) The gears of the wind turbine are such that the hub will be inserted to the upper, smaller gear which is easily spinned as compared to the lower larger gear due to the moment of the torque caused by the force of the hub rotating in the presence of wind blown towards the blades attached to the hub.      

                                   





                                    

Fig 5: The pictures are of the Wind Turbine Motor Hub which are used such that a maximum of 12 vanes can be inserted into it. Once the vanes are inserted, a STELR protractor will be used to measure its angle and correct it to its appropriate angle according to the experiment. As shown in the picture on the right, two wind vanes have been inserted into the motor hub. The motor hub also has a screw (blue) to tighten the vanes to the hub such that it does not fall out when the hub is spinning during an experiment.

Fig 6: The ammeter is used to measure the current produced by the wind turbine motor when the hub is turned. The ammeter can be adjusted to set its maximum current to suit the experiment. The ammeter can be paused by pressing the hold button to find the amount of current generated. By setting the device to the parts with <number>A and choose the maximum current the wind turbine will generate. If it shows a negative number, the maximum current will have to be increased.




Fig 7: The anemometer is used to measure the speed of the wind in the SI unit m/s, which is in this experiment, the fan speed of the industrial fan. By using this device, we can deduce the various wind speeds in the experiment and and also observe how stable the wind is. When the wind is unstable, the wind speed will vary and change thus, we will have to ensure that the wind speed must be at a stable rate for the experiment to take place. 

Fig 8: The picture shows two wires (black and red). The black wire is to be connected to the center of the Ammeter while the red wire is to be connected either to the 10A opening or the other opening. In our experiment, we will insert the red wire not to the 10A opening because the 10A is for a high current generation. The red wire must be connected to the right side of the wind turbine with the hub at the highest point of the wind turbine so as not to have a negative value of the current produced.
Fig 9: The retort stand is used to hold the wind turbine motor in place such that it is directly at the centre of the industrial fan to have the most amount of wind blowing against the wind vanes. Two retort stands are used to hold the wind turbine motor firmly in place such that it does fall over when the high amounts of wind is blown against the wind turbine motor.

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Fig 10: The STELR protractor is used to measure the angle of the vanes. To measure the angle of the blades, place the protractor at the stub of the vane and turn the blade to change its angle and suit the needs of the experiment. The protractor must not move while adjusting the angle of the blades.


Fig 11: The industrial fan is used to create a wind tunnel that would allow the wind turbine motor to rotate and cause it to generate electricity in the generator located in the wind turbine motor.











2.2 Diagrams of experimental setup  








Figure 3.1: Picture of Experimental set-up


Figure 3.1: The power generator, attached to the experimental component (the hub with its blades fig 3.2), of which placed in front of is a fan. 2 retort stands hold them in place.



Figure 3.2: Picture of Motor hub that is connected to 3 blades



2.3 Procedures

(A)  Finding out the ideal wind speed that will have the most power output produced

  1. Insert 4 blades to the wind turbine at an angle of 45º
  2. Switch the fan on at 3 different speeds for each of the experiments (Low, Medium and High)
  3. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before taking the power output
  4. Record the results in a data table
  5. Repeat for the other wind speeds (Low, Medium and High)
  6. Steps must be repeated an extra time for each varied wind speed,  to ensure an accurate and reliable result at the end of the experiment.

Figure 1: Photo of Experiment A


(B)  Finding out the ideal number of vanes that will have the most power output produced

  1. Insert a number of blades (2, 3, 4, 6 and 12) to the wind turbine at an angle of 45º
  2. Switch the fan on at a constant speed for all the experiments.
  3. Ascertain that there are no stray winds from other directions.
  4. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before taking the power output
  5. Record the results in a data table
  6. Repeat for the other number of vanes (2, 3, 4, 6 and 12)
  7. Repeat the steps for an extra time to obtain an accurate and reliable result at the end of the experiment.





Figure 2: Photos of Experiment B
(C) Finding out the ideal angle of the vanes that will have the most power output produced
  1. According to Experiment B, using the most ideal number of vanes, change the angles of all the vanes by using a STELR protractor to measure the angles to change
  2. Switch the fan on at a constant speed for all the experiments
  3. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before taking the power output
  4. Record the results in a data table
  5. Repeat steps 1 to 5 with the various angles of the vanes (45º, 30º and 15º)
  6. Repeat the steps an extra time to obtain an accurate and reliable result at the end of the experiment
Figure 3: Photos of Experiment C





(D) Finding out the ideal length of the vanes that will have the most power output produced
  1. According to Experiment B and C, using the most ideal angle and number of vanes, change the length of the vanes.
  2. Switch the fan on at a constant speed (medium) for all the experiments
  3. Use a stopwatch to measure 1 minute before taking the power output
  4. Record the results in a data table
  5. Repeat steps 1 to 5 with the different design of the vanes (short, medium and long)
  6. Repeat the steps an extra time in order to obtain an accurate and reliable result at the end of the experiment
       Figure 4: Photos of Experiment 4

Short: 15cm^2 area         Medium: 20cm^2 area               Long: 30cm^2 area





2.4 Risk Assessment and Management  


Risk
Assessment
Management
If the blades are not inserted firmly into the wind turbine hubs, it might fly out at a high speed while the turbine is spinning which may lead to injuries.
Low/
Medium/
High
Make sure that the blade is firmly placed by using tape or blue-tack and test by spinning the fan at the turbine motor at increasing speeds before the experiment to make sure the propeller does not fly out and is secure. Also, wear safety goggles to prevent eye injuries if the propellor happens to fly towards our eyes.
Touching the electrical plug when inserting in the plug of the industrial fan would result in fatal injuries as the electric plug has a very strong current enough of electrocuting a person.
Low/
Medium/
High
Be cautious when you are near the electrical plug, and never put our hands into the electrical plug especially when our hands are wet.
The back rod of the wind turbine is very sharp and it may accidentally hit our eyes when we are setting up the experiment thus, it may cause eye injuries.
Low/
Medium/
High
Be cautious when setting up the wind turbine and remember not put our eyes too close to the wind turbine rod to prevent eye injuries.
The industrial fan used and the spinning hub of the wind turbine can cause cuts of the fingers when they are are accidently inserted through the gaps of the fan or placed at the blades when they are spinning at high speeds. .
Low/
Medium/
High
Wear gloves to prevent sustainable injuries, and take precaution to prevent injuries, precautions such as not touching the industrial fan during experiment, and staying at least 30cm away from the experimental set-up. Also ensure that the wind turbine hub fully stops before touching it.  






2.5 Data Analysis

Inspection of data collected, with the forming of a conclusion. The best characteristics of a windmill blade are deduced and ascertained at this point.

To analyse our results, we will have to observe the value shown on the ammeter that is connected in series to the wind turbine motor, which measures using the unit mA. The power output shown will only show when the wind turbine is rotating and generating electricity. After waiting for about 1 minute for the power output on the ammeter to stabilise, we will freeze the value and record it down so as not to be biased by choosing the results we think should occur.

Next, we would repeat the experiment to ensure accuracy and reliability, and then record the results of the experiments in a table afterwards calculating the average power output for the two tests.We have chosen not to conduct 2 tests due to the lack of time. A third test is conducted only when its previous 2 results gets abnormal results. We will present the data using a histogram to compare the different factors.
We are mainly focusing on the power output of the experiment which is the dependent variable of which would lead us to the final conclusion.

The result that has the most power output will show that there is more electricity generated at a greater rate in the wind turbine motor in that set-up as compared to the rest. Thus, we can conclude that that particular factor is the most ideal for a windmill blade.

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